CVE-2019-14287 is a vulnerability affecting versions of sudo < 1.8.28 which can allow users with sudo privileges to circumvent restrictions and become root.
This post is a worked example of exploiting this vulnerability.
The reality is that, despite it being a requirement of most HPC customers, HPC vendors are not doing a lot when it comes to security when there is a lot of opportunity to leverage this to differentiate.
Good security is about dissecting something in order to understand how it works and then looking for ways to manipulate in order to facilitate unintended functionality. As long as that principle exists security can apply within any environment.